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代寫 HC1062 DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING

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  • 代寫 HC1062 DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING

     
    HC1062
    DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING
    LECTURE 12
    RESEARCH REPORT: PRESENTING
    INSIGHT & FINDINGS
    Holmes Institute, 2007  2
    Learning Objectives
    Understand . . .
    ? a quality presentation of research findings can have an
    inordinate effect on a reader’s or a listener’s perceptions
    of a study’s quality
    ? contents, types, lengths, and technical specifications of
    research reports
    ? the writer of a research report should be guided by
    questions of purpose, readership, circumstances/
    limitations, and use
    Holmes Institute, 2007  3
    Learning Objectives
    Understand . . .
    ? while some statistical data may be incorporated
    into the text, most statistics should be placed in
    tables, charts, or graphs
    ? oral presentations of research findings should be
    developed with concern for organization, visual
    aids, and delivery in unique communication
    settings
    2
    Holmes Institute, 2007  4
    Exhibit 21-1 Sponsor Presentation and the Research
    Process
    Holmes Institute, 2007  5
    The Written
    Research Report
    Long  Short
    Holmes Institute, 2007  6
    Guidelines for Short Reports
    Tell reader why you are writing
    Remind reader of request
    Write in an expository style
    Write report and hold for review
    Attach detailed materials in appendix
    代寫 HC1062 DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING
     
    Holmes Institute, 2007  7
    Long Reports
    Management  Technical
    Holmes Institute, 2007  8
    Report Modules
    Prefatory Information
    Introduction
    Methodology
    Findings
    Conclusions
    Appendices
    Bibiography
    Holmes Institute, 2007  9
    Components: Short Report
    Memo or Letter-Style
    1. Introduction
    ? Problem statement
    ? Research objectives
    ? Background
    2. Conclusions
    ? Summary and conclusions
    ? Recommendations
    4
    Holmes Institute, 2007  10
    Components: Short Report
    Technical
    1. Prefatory Information (all)
    2. Introduction (all plus brief methods and
    limitations)
    3. Findings
    4. Conclusions
    5. Appendices
    Holmes Institute, 2007  11
    Components: Long, Report
    Management
    1. Prefatory Information (all)
    2. Introduction (all plus brief methods and
    limitations)
    3. Conclusions and Recommendations
    4. Findings
    5. Appendices
    Holmes Institute, 2007  12
    Components: Long Report
    Technical
    1. Prefatory Information
    2. Introduction
    3. Methodology
    4. Findings
    5. Conclusions
    6. Appendices
    7. Bibliography
    5
    Holmes Institute, 2007  13
    Exhibit 22-3 Example Findings Page
    Holmes Institute, 2007  14
    Prewriting Concerns
    What is the report’s purpose?
    Who will read the report?
    What are the circumstances?
    How will the report be used?
    Holmes Institute, 2007  15
    The Outline
    I. Major Topic Heading
    A. Major subtopic heading
    1. Subtopic
    a. Minor subtopic
    1) Further detail
    6
    Holmes Institute, 2007  16
    Types of Outlines
    Topic
    I. Demand
    A. How measured
    1. Voluntary error
    2. Shipping error
    a. Monthly
    variance
    Sentence
    I. Demand for refrigerators
    A. Measured in terms f
    factory shipments as
    reported by the U.S.
    Department of
    Commerce
    1. Error is
    introduced into
    year to year
    comparisons
    Holmes Institute, 2007  17
    Exhibit 21-4 Grammar and Style Proofreader
    Results
    Holmes Institute, 2007  18
    Considerations for Writing
    Readability
    Comprehensibility
    Tone
    7
    Holmes Institute, 2007  19
    Adjusting Pace
    Use ample white space
    Use headings
    Use visual aids
    Use italics and underlining
    Choose words carefully
    Repeat and summarize
    Use service words strategically
    Holmes Institute, 2007  20
    Avoiding Overcrowded Text
    Use shorter paragraphs
    Indent parts of text
    Use headings
    Use bullets
    Holmes Institute, 2007  21
    Presentation of Statistics
    Text
    Tables  Graphics
    Semi-tabular
    8
    Holmes Institute, 2007  22
    Example of Text Presentation
    Wal-Mart’s continued ascendancy to the ranks
    of super-business is clearly visible in a
    comparison between it and the Forbes 500 top-
    ranked business, General Electric. While ranked
    6 th overall, Wal-Mart surpasses the number 1-
    ranked GE in overall sales (85.6% greater) and
    sales growth over the previous year (167.3%
    greater).
    Holmes Institute, 2007  23
    Example of Semi-Tabular Presentation
    ? Wal-Mart’s sales ($244.5 billion) are 85.6%
    greater than GE sales (131.6 billion)
    ? Wal-Mart’s sales growth (12.3%) is 1.7 times
    greater than GE’s sales growth (4.6%)
    ? Wal-Mart’s profit growth (20.5%) is 2.9 times
    greater than GE’s profit growth (7.1%)
    Holmes Institute, 2007  24
    Example of
    Tabular Presentation
    Company  Rank  Sales  Sales
    Growth
    Profits  Profit
    Growth
    GE  1  $131,698 m  4.60%  $15,133 m  7.1%
    Wal-Mart  6  $244,524 m  12.30%  $8,039 m  20.5%
    9
    Holmes Institute, 2007  25
    Exhibit 21-5
    Sample Tabular
    Findings
    Internet Access and Online Service Usage (2000)*
    ____Have Internet Access____
    Used any
    online
    service in
    the past
    30 days Item
    Total
    adults
    Any
    online
    Internet
    usage
    Home
    or work
    Home
    only
    Work
    only
    Total Adults (1,000) 199,438  90,458 112,949  77,621  50,476 75,409
    PERCENT DISTRIBUTION
    Age
    18 to 34 years old
    35 to 54 years old
    55 years old or over
    32.5
    39.9
    27.6
    39.7
    47.7
    12.7
    37.9
    46.0
    16.2
    35.1
    49.4
    15.5
    34.9
    5534
    9.7
    40.3
    47.4
    12.3
    Gender
    Male
    Female
    48
    52.0
    49.8
    50.2
    48.5
    51.5
    49.3
    50.7
    52.3
    47.7
    49.3
    50.7
    Household size
    1 to 2 persons
    3 to 4 persons
    5 or more persons
    Any child in household
    47.9
    36.9
    15.2
    42.1
    40.2
    44.4
    15.4
    47.7
    41.0
    43.3
    15.7
    47.0
    37.9
    45.9
    16.2
    48.7
    41.8
    44.6
    13.6
    48.0
    29.5
    44.5
    16.1
    47.9
    Marital Status
    Single
    Married
    Other
    23.7
    57.2
    19.1
    27.5
    61.6
    10.9
    26.0
    61.1
    12.9
    23.4
    66.2
    10.3
    22.6
    65.3
    12.0
    28.4
    60.6
    47.9
    Educational Attainment
    Graduated college plus
    Attended college
    Did not attend college
    22.5
    26.5
    51.0
    38.0
    34.8
    27.2
    33.6
    33.7
    32.8
    38.6
    34.0
    27.3
    49.2
    30.6
    20.3
    37.8
    35.0
    27.2
    Household Income
    Less than $50,000
    $50,000 to $74,000
    $75,000 to $149,000
    $150,000 or more
    55.1
    20.7
    20.1
    4.1
    33.6
    26.2
    32.6
    7.6
    38.3
    25.7
    29.4
    6.7
    29.9
    26.9
    34.7
    8.5
    23.3
    27.4
    39.6
    9.7
    32.9
    26.0
    33.1
    8.0
    * For persons 18 years or age or older (199,438). As of spring. Based on sample and subject to sampling error; see source for details.
    Source: Mediamark Research, Inc. New York, NY. CyberStats, © Spring 2000. Internet site http://www.mediamark.com (accessed 23 May 2000).
    Title
    Column
    Heads
    B
    a
    n
    n
    e
    r
    Body
    Footnote
    Source Note
    S
    t
    u
    b
    Holmes Institute, 2007  26
    Example
    Graphics Presentation
    Holmes Institute, 2007  27
    Exhibit 21-7
    Sample Line Graph
    10
    Holmes Institute, 2007  28
    Exhibit 21-9 Sample Area Chart
    Holmes Institute, 2007  29
    Exhibit 21-9 Sample Pie Charts
    Holmes Institute, 2007  30
    Sample Bar Chart
    11
    Holmes Institute, 2007  31
    Pictographs and Geographs
    Holmes Institute, 2007  32
    Exhibit 21-10 3-D Graphs
    Holmes Institute, 2007  33
    The Oral Report
    Opening
    Findings and
    conclusions
    Recommendations
    12
    Holmes Institute, 2007  34
    Presentation Type
    Memorized  Extemporaneous
    Holmes Institute, 2007  35
    Speaker Characteristics
    Vocal
    ? Do you speak softly?
    ? Do you speak too
    rapidly?
    ? Do you vary volume,
    tone, and rate of
    speaking?
    ? Do you use non-words
    (e.g., you know, uhm)?
    Physical
    ? Do you rock back and
    forth?
    ? Do you fiddle with things?
    ? Do you stare into space?
    ? Do you misuse visuals?
    Holmes Institute, 2007  36
    Audiovisuals
    Low Tech
    ? Chalkboard/ Whiteboard
    ? Handouts
    ? Flip charts
    ? Overhead transparencies
    ? Slides
    High Tech
    ? Computer-drawn visuals
    ? Computer animation
    13
    Holmes Institute, 2007  37
    Key Terms
    ? Area chart
    ? Bar chart
    ? Briefing
    ? Executive summary
    ? Extemporaneous
    presentation
    ? Geographic chart
    ? Letter of transmittal
    ? Line graph
    ? Management report
    ? Pace
    ? Pictograph
    ? Pie chart
    ? Readability index
    ? Sentence outline
    ? Technical report
    ? 3-D graphic
    ? Topic outline

    代寫 HC1062 DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING

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