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ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 環境行為學 代寫

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  • ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 環境行為學 代寫

    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 2017: Assignment 2 instructions
    1
    Assignment 2: Exploring reasons for environmental concern and behaviour
    Due Date: 9 am Monday 15th May 2017
    Word limit: 1500 words excluding reference list, interviewee quotes and transcripts of interviews
    Submission: Electronic copy submitted online through LMS (in the assessment section)
    Assessment weighting: 35% of final grade
    Objective
    The objective of this assignment is to deepen your understanding of social responses to
    environmental issues (e.g. environmental policies or management practices) or to environmentally
    relevant behaviours. Using a single interview/case, you will explore how theory helps (or doesn’t
    help) to understand the way a person responds to environmental policy or engages in an
    environmentally significant behaviour.
    In this project you are to choose either an environmental issue or an environmentally significant
    behavior as the focus of the study. An example of an environmental issue would be responses to
    power generation from wind farms or coal fired power plants, the use of genetically modified crops,
    recycled water, or harvesting of timber in native forests. Examples of environmentally significant
    behaviors include transport choices, recycling, growing vegetables at home, composting, and
    installation of solar panels. You do not have to choose one of these examples but can select an issue
    or behavior that is of interest to you.
    If you choose to explore response to an environmental issue or policy, your aim is to identify factors
    that appear to influence acceptance, opposition and concern in relation to that issue or policy. If you
    choose to explore an environmentally significant behavior, your project should examine factors that
    encourage or discourage the participant to engage in the particular behavior.
    Learning outcomes
    Through this process you will develop:
    -  a deeper understanding of theories of environmental concern and behaviour and how these
    apply to issues of interest to you
    -  a better understanding of how people understand environmental issues
    -  further basic research skills for understanding human-environment interactions, including:
    o enhanced capacity to understand diverse views about environments
    o introductory level skills in qualitative data collection and analysis
    o skills for reporting social scientific information and applying this to questions about
    human-environment interactions
    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 2017: Assignment 2 instructions
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    1  Preparing for data collection
    1.1 Set objectives
    Before you commence collecting data, you need to establish objectives or key ‘research questions’
    for your study. Two templates for research questions are provided below. Choose ONE of these and
    adapt it to the issue or behaviour you are interested in.
    1. What factors influence the views of one person on [specify the environmental policy or
    practice or change you will explore] OR
    2. What factors encourage or discourage one person to [specify the environmentally significant
    action of interest to you]
    1.2 Read background information
    Before you start, ensure you understand the theory that informs the question you will investigate.
    Search for studies that have investigated similar questions to the one you will address.
    •  If you have chosen Question 1, ensure you understand theories that explain acceptability of
    environmental management and policy (especially but not only Stankey and Shindler 2006
    and Devine-Wright 2005). Then you should seek research articles that have empirically
    examined acceptance/attitudes to the issue you will focus on (or related issues). For
    example, if you are interested in acceptance of recycled water, Dolnicar and Hurlimann
    (2011) examine factors affecting public acceptance of recycled water and desalinated water.
    •  If you have chosen Question 2, ensure you understand theories that explain environmentally
    significant behaviour (see for example Steg, van den Berg and de Groot (2013), also Stern
    2000, Gardner and Stern 2002, Koger and Winter 2010). Search for research articles that
    empirically examine factors that influence the behaviour you will focus on (or related
    behaviours). For example, if you are interested in composting of waste, Sussman and Gifford
    (2013) examine factors influencing composting in a food mall.
    1.3 Preparing for the interview
    You need to interview one person about their views on the issue or behaviour of interest to you. This
    interview can be conducted in person, via telephone or online. Interviews must be documented in
    detail (transcribed).
    1. Get familiar with the issue or behaviour that will provide a focus for this assignment (for
    example, have a look at websites to understand what concerns about been raised about the
    issue in the media, or look at government websites to identify if there are laws or incentive
    programs relevant to target behaviour).
    2. Decide on interview questions: Your interview questions should allow you to understand the
    links between the key theories and the issue you are exploring, so make sure your interview
    questions examine different aspects of the theory that are relevant. Some possible
    questions are provided below but these are suggestions only, you can select the questions to
    ask depending on the issue and the theory you have selected. Select questions that are
    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 2017: Assignment 2 instructions
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    relevant to you objective and adapt these to match your specific issue or behaviour. You
    should develop a set of questions that are likely to make good links between theory and the
    issue. Once you have decided on the questions to ask, it is a good idea to practice asking
    them with someone from the class. Some people give very short answers to these kinds of
    questions. If this is the case you can use verbal ‘prompts’ (e.g. tell me more, why/why not)
    to encourage the interviewee to expand on their answers.
    Some possible interview questions:
    On response to policy issue:
    •  Are you aware of [the issue/policy/practice/change]?
    •  What are your general views on this issue? What aspects of the
    [issue/policy/practice/change] are positive? What aspects do you not like?
    •  How did you first hear about this issue?
    •  What was your response at that time?
    •  Have your views changed since then?
    •  What has influenced your views on this issue?
    •  Where have you gone to find information about this issue?
    •  What do you see as the risks, costs and benefits of [the change/practice/policy]?
    •  Do you like the look of [specify some visual aspect associated with the issue if this is relevant
    – e.g. wind farms, logging in native forests etc.]? Or Does [the issue] have any impact on the
    visual beauty of [specify environment that might be impacted by the issue]?
    •  What do your friends/colleagues/others think about this issue? How have their views
    influenced you?
    •  Do you trust [the agencies responsible for managing the issue/policy/practice/change]? Why
    or why not?
    •  Have you ever acted to protest or support this [issue/policy/practice/change], e.g. written to
    Member of Parliament or signed a petition? What did you say?
    •  What do you think should happen in the future? What would you like to see done
    differently?
    Possible questions about behaviour:
    •  Can you tell me about how you [behaviour item e.g. ‘use water in your home]?
    •  Over the past few years have you done anything to reduce/increase [target behaviour e.g.
    outdoor water use at home]?
    •  Why do you (or don’t you) undertake [specify target behaviour e.g. your water use outdoors
    at home]?
    •  What do you see are the costs and benefits of [specify target behaviour e.g. your water use
    outdoors at home]? What financial, legal or political factors influence your decisions on this
    issue? What financial, legal or political factors prevent you from taking this responding to the
    situation in the in the way you would like to?
    •  Who else is involved in making these decisions? What are their views on the issue?
    •  Has anyone tried to influence you to act in a particular way on this issue? Who was that?
    What did they want you to do? How did you respond and why?
    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 2017: Assignment 2 instructions
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    •  Are you aware of [laws or incentives related to target behaviour e.g. current water
    restrictions in Melbourne]?
    •  How do [laws or incentives related to target behaviour e.g. current water restrictions in
    Melbourne] influence your behaviour?
    •  How have you gotten information about this issue?
    Whichever question you use, you might also consider using a ‘laddering interview technique’ to try
    and clarify values. We practiced this approach during tutorials, so look at notes from this for ideas.
    2.  Collecting the data
    2.1 Select and recruit your participant.
    Make sure the person you invite to participate has some knowledge or familiarity of the issue or
    behaviour you are investigating. You will also get more out of this assignment if this person is
    different to yourself (consider age, cultural background, but particularly their concern or action in
    regard to the environment). The person may be a friend, relative or acquaintance but MUST be over
    18 years of age. He or she should not be in a dependent relationship with you (e.g. they must not be
    someone you employ or supervise).
    2.2 Explain the project
    Before asking the person to take part in an interview you must provide information so the person can
    decide whether or not they consent to participating. Explain that the project is part of coursework for
    this subject and explain the purpose of the project (to investigate how people respond to
    environmental issues or behaviours)and what involvement is required (e.g. participate in an
    interview of approximately 10 minutes regarding views on [specify the issue or behaviour]).
    Emphasise that participation is voluntary, that the interview will be recorded in detail, and that you
    will be reporting the interview in an assignment and not using it in any other way. If he/she is not
    willing to participate, thank them for their time and ask someone else.
    2.3 Conduct the interview
    In many cases this can be done at the same time as recruitment since the interview is quite short.
    2.4 Transcribe the interview.
    This should be word for word. Note that emails are not a suitable way to conduct the interview –
    although other instant messaging options should work fine.
    3.  Analyse the data
    Keep in mind your overall research question – your analysis needs to be targeted to answer this
    question, and to make links between the theory and the issue as seen through the eyes of your
    participant.
    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 2017: Assignment 2 instructions
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    Some ideas for focus:
    Consider the values (important outcomes or ideals) expressed in the participant’s answers. For
    example, how would you characterise their main value orientations, are they most concerned about
    themselves (egoistic), other people (social-altruistic) or the environment (biospheric)?
    Consider the reasons the participant gives (or reasons evident in their response) for supporting or
    not supporting the policy, or for acting/not acting in a particular way. What factors seem to influence
    this response? Do the factors noted in theory appear to play a role? Do some factors appear to be
    more important than others? Do some of the reasons given seem to have little relationship to the
    theory?
    4.  Prepare your report

    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 環境行為學 代寫
    Structure your report in the following way: (Note: word counts are suggested only)
    Introduction (450-550 words): This section should state the aim of the investigation (the key
    research question, adapted for your purposes), draw on theory to explain the reason for posing this
    question and what you expect to find, and outline what other researchers have found regarding your
    key research question (as much as possible, focus on research that applies the question to your
    environments of interest – where there is none, provide examples from related research). Make sure
    you appropriately reference the reading material you draw on.
    Method (200-250 words): Describe the way you collected the data for this assignment. Briefly
    describe the type of person (simply approximate age and education/work background and any other
    relevant information) you interviewed. Explain briefly how and why you selected this person. How
    did you collect the data (e.g. face-to-face interview, instant messaging or similar)? What questions
    were asked? Try to make this description brief but comprehensive. In writing scientific reports we
    aim for transparency and repeatability, so provide sufficient details so that the reader could
    potentially repeat the procedure.
    Results/Discussion (500-600 words): Present your analysis in a way that helps answer the research
    question, noting the suggested approach to analysis above. It’s really important that you provide
    evidence to support your observations in this section. With qualitative research, evidence is provided
    in the form of words spoken by the participants (quotes). Don’t paste in the whole interview but
    select short sections of answers that demonstrate the point you are trying to make. Include enough
    of the context to make it clear what was being referred to. Where the observations support or
    challenge the set readings, comment on this.
    Include the full text of your interview in an appendix (not included in word limits).
    Conclusion (250 - 250 words): In this section, answer the research question as best as you are able.
    Give a short summary of the factors influencing attitudes or behaviour as evident in your study.
    Comment on any limitations of the study.
    References: Make sure you list the readings you have referred to in your report, using an
    appropriate citation method. Citations should follow the APA style (not counted within the 1500
    words limit on the assignment).
    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 2017: Assignment 2 instructions
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    Appendices: Include the interview transcript (not counted in the 1500 word limit on the assignment).
    5.  A note about research ethics in reporting:
    For reasons of privacy, you should present your methods, results and interview transcript in ways
    that protect the identity of the person you interview. For example, don’t use their name in your
    report – you can use pseudonyms (made up names) if it makes it easier to organise information in
    your assignment. Similarly, you may need to disguise other information that could be used to identify
    the interviewee – for example, it may be best to disguise information about organisations with which
    your participant is are involved.
    6.  References cited above
    Dolnicar, S., Hurlimann, A., & Grün, B. (2011). What affects public acceptance of recycled and
    desalinated water? Water Research, 45(2), 933-943.
    Gardner, G. T., & Stern, P. C. (2002). Environmental problems and human behavior (2nd ed.). Boston,
    MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.

    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 環境行為學 代寫
    Koger, S. M., & Winter, D. D. N. (2010). The psychology of environmental problems : psychology for
    sustainability (3rd ed.). New York: Psychology Press.
    Stankey, G. H., & Shindler, B. (2006). Formation of social acceptability judgments and their
    implications for management of rare and little-known species. Conservation Biology, 20(1), 28-37.
    Steg, L., van den Berg, A. E., & de Groot, J. I. M. (2013). Environmental psychology an introduction
    BPS textbooks in psychology (pp. xxix, 376 p.). Retrieved from
    http://site.ebrary.com.ezp.lib.unimelb.edu.au/lib/unimelb/Doc?id=10558123
    Stern, P. C. (2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally significant behavior. Journal of
    Social Issues, 56(3), 407-424.
    Sussman, R., & Gifford, R. (2013). Be the Change You Want to See: Modelling Food Composting in
    Public Places. Environment and Behavior, 45(3), 323-343.
    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 2017: Assignment 2 instructions
    7
    Assessment Criteria
    Read through these criteria before preparing your report since you will be assessed against these:
    Criteria
    Introduction
    10 marks
    The aim/research question is clearly stated
    The context for the study (why it is worth understanding this) is clearly stated
    Theory relevant to the research is clearly explained to the reader
    Past empirical research on the research question (or related topics) is identified and
    considered
    Ideas are correctly attributed to their authors
    Methods
    4 marks
    It is clear what kind of person took part in this study, and how and why they were
    chosen.
    It is clear how data was collected – what questions were asked, how long it took, how
    responses were recorded
    Results/
    Discussion
    10 marks
    The analysis of interviews is clearly related to the aim/research question
    The analysis of interviews makes good use of quotes to defend observations
    The interpretation of data makes good links between data and relevant theory or
    findings of previous research
    Conclusion
    5
    The conclusion clearly summarises the findings, answering the key research question
    The limits of this study are explained
    Presentation
    6
    The language is clear and simple, and any jargon is defined.
    The referencing is correct, consistent and provides all necessary information about
    sources.
    The overall structure of the report follows guidelines (including subheadings:
    introduction, methods, results/discussion, conclusion)
    Transcriptions of the interview is included in an appendix
    TOTAL 
    ENST 20001 Human Behaviour and Environment 環境行為學 代寫

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