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代寫 prices and markets assignment

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  • 代寫 prices and markets assignment

    Word limit: 1300 words, across all questions. (800)
    Marking: Marks will be awarded based on how well you: (a)
    understand the economic theories and concepts from the lectures;
    (b) apply these to the question(s); (c) conduct systematic economic
    analysis using these theories and concepts (this includes the use of
    appropriate diagrams); and (d) draw conclusions, if appropriate.
    Note that general layman discussions do not constitute sufficient
    economic analysis.
    Presentation: Assignments should be typed, using 10 – 12 sized
    font and 1.5 – 2 line spacing. Graphs and diagrams can be hand
    drawn and scanned in, but must be clearly drawn and clearly
    labelled.
    Read the article Dairy farmers are being ‘milked dry’, but let’s
    remember the real cost of milk (The Conversation, 25/05/16)
    attached, about the animal welfare and environmental concerns
    associated with dairy farming in Australia.
    Then use economic analysis to answer the following questions. In
    your answers, ensure that you use relevant economic theories,
    concepts and/or diagrams covered in this course. Note that general
    layman or journalistic discussions do not constitute sufficient
    economic analysis.
    ???
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    Question 1
    The article calls for public policy initiatives to address animal
    welfare and environmental concerns associated with dairy farming
    in Australia. With reference to economic concepts covered in this
    course, explain why the government might want to intervene in the
    dairy market.
    (10 marks)
    Question 2
    A tax on dairy products is one public policy initiative that the
    government might consider. Perform appropriate economic analysis
    to explain how such a tax could be used to address the animal
    welfare and environmental concerns raised in the article. Discuss
    the pros and cons of using such a tax as a policy initiative.
    (10 marks)
    Question 3
    What other public policy initiatives can the government employ to
    address these concerns? Discuss the pros and cons of these.
    (10 marks)
    Question 4
    What can we as private individuals do to address these concerns in
    the absence of government intervention? Are such private solutions
    likely to be effective?
    (5 marks)
    ???
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    ???
    Dairy farmers are being ‘milked dry’, but
    let’s remember the real cost of milk
    May 25, 2016 6.11am AEST

    代寫 prices and markets assignment
    The dairy industry faces a number of welfare and environmental issues. Cow image from
    www.shutterstock.com
    Gonzalo N Villanueva
    PhD Candidate, School of Historical and Philosophical Studies, University of Melbourne
    The Conversation’s partners
    View partners of The Conversation
    The Australian dairy farming industry is in a state of crisis. Cheap dairy products and
    fluctuations in both the domestic and global markets have taken a financial toll on
    farmers. Consumers have rallied to help struggling dairy producers.
    But this is only half the problem. The true cost of dairy is also paid by dairy cows and the
    environment.
    Welfare problems
    Despite the idyllic image of outdoor farming, several industry practices negatively affect
    dairy cows. To meet production demands, dairy cows are subject to a continuous cycle of
    impregnation, induced calving and milking.
    Tail-docking and horn removal are routinely performed without pain relief. Lameness is
    another major animal welfare problem, often the result of environmental pressures, such
    as tracks, herd size and handling. The average lifespan of a dairy cow is six to seven
    years, whereas generally cows can live for 20 to 25 years.
    One of the most controversial issues is young “bobby” calves. A bobby calf is a newborn
    calf, less than 30 days old, who has been purposely separated from their mother.
    Immediately after separation, cow and calf call out and search for each other.
    Most bobby calves are slaughtered within the first week of their life. Handling and
    transport pose added problems for young calves who have not developed herding
    behaviours, are vulnerable to stress, and are forced to go without their mother’s milk.
    Each year, 450,000 bobby calves are slaughtered.
    ???
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    Advocacy groups frequently uncover the routine abuse of bobby calves in Australian
    abattoirs and challenge the dairy industry to do something about it.
    Yet aside from the wider ethical questions over the use and exploitation of animals,
    farmers are not legally doing anything wrong. This is because the treatment of animals
    operates in a legal context where animals are considered absolute property.
    What’s more, farm animals are exempt from the provisions of anti-cruelty legislation.
    Codes of practice are practically useless, because they promote low welfare standards
    and are unenforceable.
    The environmental impact
    As well as systematic welfare problems, livestock farming is, both directly and indirectly,
    one of the most ecologically harmful human activities. The Australian livestock sector is
    worth A$17 billion and dairy cattle farming is a A$4.2 billion industry.
    In Australia, livestock farming accounts for 10% to 16% of greenhouse gas emissions,
    with dairy farms contributing 19% of this, or 3% of total emissions. Methane emissions,
    from digestion and manure, and nitrous oxide from livestock are significant contributors.
    Globally, the livestock sector is responsible for more greenhouse gases than the world’s
    transport.
    Livestock production accounts for 70% of all agricultural land, including the land used to
    grow crops to feed these animals. Animal agriculture is a key factor in land degradation,
    deforestation, water stress, pollution, and loss of biodiversity.
    Livestock farming will also be affected by climate change, particularly changes in
    temperature and water. The quantity and quality of pasture and forage crops will also be
    affected. Diseases may increase due to fluctuating weather and climate.
    Emissions can be reduced
    Just as the energy sector is attempting to transition to low-carbon energy sources to
    tackle climate change, the agricultural sector needs to transition to an ethical and
    sustainable alternative.
    From the current crisis, there are several opportunities for farmers to seize. Large
    transitions are possible in land use, production, output and profitability.
    Places such as Gippsland in Victoria, which currently produces 19% of Australia’s dairy,
    have the opportunity for agricultural development based on apples and brassicas, such
    as broccoli, kale, cauliflower, cabbage, turnip and mustard. Some of these crops are
    already popular in the region. As a result of climate change and increasing temperatures,
    some areas will be more suitable than others.
    While still in the stages of research, perennial grain crops – which store more carbon,
    maintain better soil and water quality, and manage nutrients better than annuals – have
    the potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture. New land uses could also include
    carbon plantings, biofuels and bioenergy crops. Investing into further research for
    alternatives to livestock farming is needed.
    Some have argued that livestock emissions can be technically mitigated by modifying
    animal feed, better managing pastures, carbon sequestration and manure storage.
    Welfare issues remain
    But technical mitigation does not address the endemic animal welfare problems in the
    livestock industry.
    Consumer demand is one of the most powerful strategies to combat animal welfare and
    environmental problems. Research shows that we must reduce food waste and losses in
    the supply chain and change our diets toward less resource-intensive diets, such as a
    plant- based diets. Doing so would cut emissions by two-thirds and save lives. It’s
    possible to eliminate animal suffering and reduce carbon emissions by reducing and
    replacing livestock production and consumption.
    Alternatives to dairy milk include soy and almond milk. Soy milk is nutritionally
    comparable to dairy milk and has a significantly smaller environmental footprint.
    Policy initiatives also need to address these issues. The Food and Agriculture
    Organization’s Livestock’s Long Shadow report recommends a policy approach that
    correctly prices natural resources to reflect the full environmental costs and to end
    damaging subsidies. In the interim, higher taxes on meat and other livestock products will
    be necessary to improve public health and combat climate change.
    Denmark, for instance, is considering proposals raise the tax on meat, after its ethics
    council concluded that “climate change is an ethical problem”.
    Governments everywhere need to have a transitional plan for livestock producers and
    workers – one that helps to cultivate the ethical and sustainable agricultural endeavours
    of the future.
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    Climate change Animal welfare Greenhouse gases Cows
    Dairy
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    Greenhouse Gas milk prices
    Milk Crisis
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